Have you taken our plantar fasciitis survey yet?
If you would like more information or have a question, please contact us.
If you have or have had plantar fasciitis or plantar heel pain generally and are interested in participating in a trial we are under taking with Queen Mary University of London, then please contact the research team.
The plantar fascia is a strong band of tissue that runs along the sole of the foot from the heel to the toes. It helps to support the foot rather like the tension rope of a tension bridge.
The fascia can become strained or torn anywhere along the course of the plantar fascia, although commonly beneath the heel, and is generally termed plantar fasciitis. This is the most common foot complaint we see and is thought to occur in 10% of the population.
Studies have shown that the fascia is not actually inflamed and therefore the term fasciitis is not strictly accurate. As a result, this can be referred to as plantar fasciosis or fasciopathy as it is more of a degenerative condition.
In reality, plantar fasciitis encompasses a range of conditions which can occur separately or in combination and include (see our blog):
- Thickening of the fascia (true plantar fasciitis)
- Soft tissue oedema (swelling / inflammation) above or below the fascia
- Bone marrow oedema (effectively inflammation of the bone)
- Nerve entrapment – the small nerves beneath the heel can become irritated or entrapped causing symptoms
Calcaneal or heel spurs are often referred to in this condition. Whilst these are more common when heel pain is present, they are rarely the source of the pain and can either be part of the fascia at the insertion or sit deep to the fascia.
What causes plantar fasciitis?
The most common cause of plantar fasciitis is mechanical, i.e. increased stress to the fascia and includes:
- Poor foot function
- Unsupportive shoes
- Over activity
However, in some instances there may be rarer causes of pain and this includes:
- An underlying inflammatory condition
- Bone disease / tumours
- Stress fracture
- Nerve entrapment in the lower back
Whilst the vast majority of cases are due to mechanical reasons, it is important to get an accurate diagnosis if symptoms are not settling with standard treatments.
Will it get worse?
Whilst plantar fasciitis is a self- limiting condition (i.e. it can spontaneously go), it can last for weeks, months or years. Initially, the symptoms may be mild and only present first thing in the morning or when standing after a period of rest. However, the symptoms often become more persistent / severe until they can have a significant impact on activity levels or your day to day routine.
What are the common symptoms?
- Classic symptoms are pain first thing in the morning or on first step after rest.
- Initially, it may ease after a few steps but gradually it becomes more persistent.
- Some patients describe it like walking on hot coals or a knife sticking into the foot.
- Burning pain can be present and may represent some nerve irritation.
- Many patients experience pain around the border of the heel which can be due to walking awkwardly due to the pain beneath the heel.
How is it recognised?
- Clinical examination and a detailed history allow diagnosis.
- A detailed 3D gait analysis can help to diagnose the contributing factors.
- Many clinicians request an ultrasound scan which is helpful in identifying thickening and some tears.
- Our preference is MRI scan as it helps to differentiate between the differing pathologies that can be present and thus help us to target treatment appropriately.
What can I do to reduce the pain?
- Calf Stretches
- Wear supportive footwear
What will Premier Podiatry do?
If simple measures do not reduce your symptoms, there are other options:
- Confirm the diagnosis / arrange any necessary investigations
- Perform a detail 3D gait analysis to diagnose the under lying factors that may contribute to injury.
- Advise a specific strapping technique which can be very helpful for this condition.
- Advise appropriate shoes
- Advise exercises
- Advise regarding orthotics – whilst a standard off the shelf orthotic helps many, we have specific orthotic modifications we use when symptoms are persistent.
- Extra Corporeal Shockwave Therapy – this is a treatment that helps to stimulate the healing process and can be effective for this condition.
- Arrange a guided steroid injection if indicated.
- Other treatments such as dry needling (the use of a needle to puncture the fascia and stimulate healing), the injection of platelet rich plasma beneath the heel and radiofrequency (Topaz) have been reported although the evidence base is weak for these treatments.
The way in which your foot loads during walking can place increased stress on the foot and this can be controlled by special shoe inserts (orthotics). Whilst these do not correct the position of your foot, they guide motion to reduce symptoms and the risk of further injury.
In many cases orthotics are only required for a short period of time to help resolve symptoms whilst function is improved with an appropriate rehabilitation plan. Our sophisticated 3D gait analysis allows us to advise patients the length of time they will require orthotics.
Will this cure the problem?
In our experience, plantar fasciitis tends to respond to a range of management options performed in a co-ordinated fashion for a sustained period of time. It is rare that symptoms settle immediately and patients who benefit from injections in the short term, quite commonly have a recurrence of symptoms.
What will happen if this goes untreated?
As noted above, whilst it will eventually go, it could take a long time. Generally symptoms get worse and require treatment.
How can I cure the problem?
The standard surgical option involves cutting (releasing) the fascia beneath the heel. There are reports of a combined procedure involving release of the fascia, debridement of any bony spur and drilling of the heel bone being effective. However, the results are mixed, are not without complication and are only performed in rare instances.